An antique city in Tracian- Enez

Ainos which is accepted as the old settlement area of Edirne is the place near Enez now and hosts important ruins of the area before the conquest...

Enez Castle


The castle is in the west of Enez, in the south west and ends at the steep slopes towards Meriç River mouth. Thus the ramparts are well preserved at the side and has a glorious view when looking from the sea. Some of the most important ruins that have almost totally survived up to date in Enez, one of the most important counties in Edirne are castle walls innerport in its west and jetties. The castle which is also acrapolis hill and the first settlement area of Enez has to arched doors one of which is in east and the other is in the north. Rampart walls which is in 740 m long, 2 m thick and partly in 25 m high are supported by round rectangle and multi cornered towers. The innerport which is in the west of the castle has been preserved with towers and jetties in the north and south. The jetty in the south is 130 m long at the east west direction and there are five towers in different shapes on it. The length of jetty in the north which has been survived up to date is 80 m and there is a huge tower with square plan at its edge. The ruins show that the tower was built in hellenistic age and enlarged with additionals in Byzantine period. But there are huge damages on both castle walls, jetties preserving the port and towers.

Hagia Sophia Church ‘Fatih Mosque’

The ruins of Hagia Sophia Church which has important place amoung Byzantine religious buildings and is in Enez, known as Fatih Mosque today is south east edge of the castle. First built as the church it was turned into the mosque in 1456, it was destroyed by an eathquake in 1965 and abandoned middle and north nets were destroyed during the earthquake. The dome must have been destroyed earlier. The mosque is in 21X38 sizes.

Number one and two chapels

There is a chapel called Theotokos Chrysopege in the north west of the castle. The huge part of the north wall of the chapel which is in 7X10.50 m size still survives. It has been understood from written sources that it was built in 1422. the Floor of the chapel which has been formed of one abscissa and naphtha was paved with triangle chalk stones and there are graves.

Number Two Chapel (HAGIOS GREGORIOS NEOKAISERIAS CHAPEL)

It is in the north of the private property houses that are still used in the middle of the castle. The chapel which is 1.5 m under the current soil level has one abscissa. It was built in 12nd century. In the same century, it was enlarged by adding a room at the west part. There are frescos reflecting the rural art of the same period on their walls. The floor of the room which has abscissa was covered with marble plaques and the floor of the room added was covered with baked soil. In the chapel, there are possibly three tombs belonging to the ones getting it built, there is a huge yard in its north and there is a road in the east west direction. Both places are marble coating.

PAN INN CHAPEL

It is out of the chapel, on the south jetty and in the15 m south east part of the arched door providing the entering to the inner port. It is in a niche made on the west wall of the inn enterance, and is named as Pan Inn because of the marble reliefs dated in Hellenistic age and describing two Nymphes dancing with Pan. The inn which in the beginning had a relationship with Pan culture and showed a natural construction was turned into underground grave chapel in 14th century and was named as AgiaTriada. It has one naphtha and there are small size abscissas in rock at both sides and there is abscissa on its axis. Some frescos describing Saint pictures on lime mortar in abscissas survive partly up to date but since it was used as tinsmith workshop in the last periods of the Chapel, most of the pictures were run down. There is a description of The Virgin Mary with halos colored with red and its tones in the middle of the abscissa. Red’s various tones, black and especially grey were commonly used on the other pictures of the frescos.

ROME VILLA ‘THE RICH’S HOUSE’

Roman period villa that forms an important part of Ainos excavations in Enez is in the garden opposite the district governor public housing now in Gazi Ömer Bey neighbourhood one part of the middle yard a room, kitchen and its bathroom has been appeared by working in the only enacted parcels of the villa that is own five separete parcels with privite property between houses. In the yard appeared mosaic flooring is 6.00m long and 1.85m width. Two sides of this mosaics are limited with large kerbs in the shape of strip and occured frrom white teseras small stones.There are meander motive strips worked carefully with black and white teseras in borders. There are cicular motives form of four leaves on the large area between these. The saloon was floored with colourful small stones in 2.50X4.00m size, figures and geometrical patterns in the north part of the villa. There is a board formed of three figures in the focal point of the composition and around them. There are geometrical describe boards put in the seperate frames. A large border made with white stones and in 40cm width surrounds this main description.

Roma Street

The center of the Ainos city is in paralel direction with the current Bekir Kara street. The street date back to Roman age was made voulted in the shape of half bullnose and its upper part was covered with big black stones. Arces which were paralel to the street and at the both sides of it were placed in order to canalize the rain water. There is sewage system which is 0.60m width and 0.80m high inside it. It has been understood that the sewage and the street dated back to Roman age go to Meriç River.

TAŞALTI NECROPOLIS

It is at the slope of the elevation known as Taşaltı on the left of the enterance of Enez city. There is a heroes monument tombs with bases and monumental graves on the front part of the necrapolis. The monuments belong to 4th and 5th century B.C. but the graves amoung them belong to late Hellenistic and early Rome periods. There are treasure layers dated back first Christianity and early Rome periods on the slope behind the front treasure layer.ıt has been also found that there were grave stelas which described banquet scene as well as very important gifts on graves and tombs.

GRAVE STONE (1st CENTURY B.C.)

It is a grave stone which is describes death banquet scene performed as high relief. There is a military officer called Lucius Fabricus laying on cline.His wife Fabricia Maxima sits Zenith of him.There are servents at the bottom corners. A table on which there is a fruit dish in the middle. A horse head a snake wrabing a tree a shield a helmet and opium poppy.

ÇAKILLIK NECROPOLIS

Çakıllık necropolis forming an important part as Enez excavations is on slightly road area in the south of Küçük Sancak Tepe tumulus at the 2nd kilometers highway.There are stone and baked tomb kinds, soil graves,well graves, baked and soil and bronze hydrias used for cremation among the appeared graves. These symbolise various spulchre trasition started in the first quarter of 5th centurey B.C. and lasted till the end of this century in Çakıllık Necropolis.The variey of burying tradition in the same period must have resulted from that people who had different beliefs from different areas in Ainos lived together.

SU TERAZİSİ NECROPOLIS

Ainos’ oldest Necropolis has come to the light in the field in the east of the enterance bridge of Enez. Graves in this area are formed of commonly one after the other three, rarely for layers.few graves belonging to late Rome period has been determined at the layer near the soil surface. It has been seen that there are graves dated back Hellenistic between 1.00 and 1.50 m deep under the soil surface and graves dated back mostly classic and rarely archaic periods between 1.3m in a mix position. Graves appeared at the places near the soil surface are made up of simple chest graves whose interiors were plastered with lime and walls were put up with rubble stones.More than one framing appeared from these kinds of graves made in different directions. Apart from these graves made up of roofing tiles were also used.

HAGIOSEVPLOS CHAPEL ‘HAS YUNUS BEY TOMB

There has been a small chapel known as the conquerer of Enez Has Yunus Bey Tomb by public in the graveyard dated back Ottoman period in the south of Enez. In fact, this structure which has an abscissa whose upper surface has been covered with semi dome, getting out and has half round plan in the east part must have been built as a grave chapel dated back Byzantine period. The interior of the chapel with which all sections it has been understood that a church architecture has dominated was built as for braces that were almost in equal size and in the shape of Cross interior size are from east to west 5.8m, from north to south 5.1m.since this plan scheme reflects out of its scheme. This building is in the type of the architecture called as free Cross form and thus it shows that it is a sample of old grave tradition. Each braces of the Cross has been covered with barrelvault and just in the middle there is a pendentive dome. There are interfenestration in 15X60cm size at the four sides of the dome which is 1.65m high. There is an abscissa whose upper surface has been covered with semi dome, getting out and has half round plan in the east part of the building. There are well engraved cists belonging to Ottoman period around the tomb.

KING’S DAUGHTER BASILICA AND RUINS OF LIGHTHOUSE

It is in the place known as king’s daughter on the west slope of current Taşaltı lake which is one of the two horbours of Ainos in the south east of Enez. 30 m long basilica has three naves and there is pastophorion between the naves. The recent excavations and researches shows that basilica has had seven construction stages up to date and the oldest construction layer date back to Rome period. A fountain which has comprimised of three niches carved in rock under the flooring level in the middle nave has appeared. Because of ten gold species obtained from base of the building, it has been understood that the last phase of the Basilica belongs to 12 nd century. The marbel blocks used for the construction of the Basilica were brought from Marmara island and Samothrace.r.

RUINS OF LIGHTHOUSE

There is a ruin of consturction which is square planned, 8mX8m size 90cm under the soil surface on a elevation in the west of the Basilica. It was built with stone and brick materials on walls. Their thickness is 1m. The construction is divided into three parts inside and three stone steps were made at the south wall of the north west part. The place where the construction were built is Enez’ highest hill and it can be seen from everywhere especially from the seaward.

ÇATALTEPE TUMULUS

It is in the south east part of a hill which is 10m in the east of Enez.Its burial chamber has been designed in the north-west and south- east directions and its dromus and gate in south east. Stones of vault made the rooms upper cover collapsed inside the room. The room is in 4.70m long 3.25 m vidth and 4.00m high till the begining of vault. The part of north-west wall till the begining of barrel vault has survived up to date. Upper parts of other walls has destroyed towards the hills slope. Wall ruins are generally 0.5cm.Gradual moldings which are one after the other in 25 cm vidth by withdrawing 1cm from the 1st stone order on the ground and 0.50cm from 2nd stone on the 1st order towards inside have been made. The walls on these go up till 2.00m in steep direction. After this height barrel vault in the form of half round has been made by narrowing proportionably towards inside. Passing from the walls to vault the burial chamber is surrounded with horizontal molding with three gutters which is 27cm vidth and some of which is still at its original place. The enterance gate of the burial chamber is 0.90m width. Only west wall of dromus lying to the front of the gate was built and not being found any data relating to the other wall shows that this wall was not built. The current length of part of the wall surviving up to date, being west part of the dromus is 4.20m.

CASTLE BATH

It is in a privite proporty field which is about 40m far from rampart wall in the north of the castle. At the enterance rectangle planned (in 10.6X8 size)but there is a warship place with mihrab dressing room three bath rooms one of which is rectangular planned and two of which are square planned and rectangular planned reservoir. The walls of the bath which is in ruins has capted till the begining of the dome and voult but upper parts have been destroyed. Because the bath is the only consturction belonging to Beylikler period in Enez its agricultural structure, the walls texture and lanced arch used for the doors are important.